Older students should learn about religious as well as secular arguments for abstinence, and they should learn how different religious traditions regard birth control. Although all of the health books we reviewed discussed condoms, none mentioned that Roman Catholic teaching forbids artificial birth control.
Indeed, they should learn something about the relevant Scriptural sources in different traditions for sexual morality, marriage, and the family. They should understand the policy positions on controversial sexual issues taken by contemporary religious organizations and theologians. Or consider abortion. For many religious people, abortion is the most important moral issue of our time; for them, it is the most important consequence of unwanted pregnancies and sexual promiscuity.
Yet most sex education ignores abortion. Of the health texts we reviewed only one mentioned it—devoting a single paragraph to explaining that it is a medically safe alternative to adoption. Well, yes. We suggest that to be an educated human being in the United States at the end of the 20th century one must understand the abortion controversy; indeed, its relevance to sex education is immediate and tremendously important. So what does it mean to be educated about abortion? Certainly students should understand the point of view of the Roman Catholic Church and those religious conservatives who believe that abortion is murder.
They should also understand the point of view of those religious liberals from various traditions who are pro-choice. They should understand feminist positions on abortion. They should learn about the key Supreme Court rulings and different ways of interpreting the implications of political liberty for the abortion debate. Students should read primary source documents written from within each of these traditions.
And, of course, teachers and texts should not take positions on where truth lies when we are so deeply divided. Or consider homosexuality. The health texts we reviewed each mentioned that some people are heterosexual and others are homosexual though not everyone would agree with this way of putting it and that we don't quite know what accounts for the difference. That's it. Like abortion, however, the issue of homosexuality and gay rights is one that is tremendously important for students to understand if they are to be informed citizens and educated about sexuality.
One approach is for educators to decide what is right when we disagree and then teach their views to children. New York City's Children of the Rainbow multicultural curriculum is a rather notorious example; it would have taught elementary school children the acceptability of homosexuality and nontraditional families had not a coalition of religious conservatives rebelled, ultimately forcing the departure of the system's chancellor.
Our objection to this curriculum is not its position on homosexuality; it is that it takes a position at all. It is proper and important to teach children to respect the rights of others; name calling and gay bashing are not permissible—and there is broad consensus about this. But we disagree deeply about homosexuality on moral and religious grounds.
Given our civic framework, it is not permissible for a public school to institutionalize a moral or religious position on a divisive issue and teach it to children uncritically. Given our educational framework, students must learn about the alternative positions when we disagree; all the major voices must be included in the discussion. Of course, the New York City case was particularly troubling because the children were so young.
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What then would an adequate sex education curriculum look like? It must, of course, be age appropriate. Lessons and courses for young children should adopt the character education model, and we must take great care to ensure that we don't encourage premature sexual behavior; character education continues to be appropriate for high school students—so long as it deals with matters about which we agree.
Indeed, we are inclined to think that adolescents need moral guidance in matters of sexual morality rather more than they need freedom. They must learn to think about sexuality in moral terms. We have also argued, however, that we need to educate mature students regarding some matters of great importance about which we disagree deeply. When we do this, however, we must educate them liberally, including all of the major voices—religious as well as secular—in the discussion.
We have already noted that one disagreement is over whether to teach abstinence only. Unhappily, our differences here appear to be irreconcilable. We do believe that some of the controversy would dissipate if sex education were truly liberal. If it would take seriously moral and religious ways of thinking about sexuality, then discussion of condoms would be less likely to be understood as legitimizing promiscuity.
Still, if schools require such courses, they should include opt-out or opt-in provisions. We suspect that if parents were convinced that educators took their moral and religious views seriously, fewer would have their children opt out. We recognize that adequate materials are lacking and most teachers are not prepared to include religious perspectives on sexuality in their classes.
It is no easy task to make sense of the soul when discussing abortion in a health class, sacramental understandings of marriage in a home economics class, or the sinfulness of promiscuity in a sex education class. Sex education teachers usually have backgrounds in health education, psychology, and the social sciences rather than the humanities or religious studies, and they may have no background in religious studies to help them make sense of religious perspectives on sex education.
This is, once again, reason for a required course in religious studies or a moral capstone course that provides a sufficiently deep understanding of religion to enable students to make sense of religious interpretations of morality and sexuality. Still, for both civic and educational reasons, some attention to religion in sex education courses is absolutely essential. Finally, we note that other teachers will sometimes find themselves drawn into both sex education and moral education.
Much fiction, for example, deals with sexuality—dating, love, marriage, integrity, adultery, homosexuality, and the family. As we argued in Chapter 6, the study of literature is important for the insight and perspective it provides on the inescapable existential questions of life—a good number of which bear on sexuality. Moreover, it is tremendously important that teachers in a variety of courses provide students the moral resources for thinking critically about the portrayal of sexuality in popular culture.
Finally, a few reminders. Pluralism and relativism. In Chapter 2 we noted that one of the most difficult tasks for teachers is to convey to students the difference between pluralism and relativism. The civic ground rules of our democracy and the ideal of liberal education require that we respect the pluralistic nature of our society and take seriously the various participants in our cultural conversation about what is morally required of us. But teachers must not take this to mean that all moral positions are equally good or true. For the most part, moral disagreements are about what the truth is, what justice truly requires.
It is true, of course, that within some important intellectual traditions the idea of moral truth makes no sense, and older students should be introduced to such traditions too—though even here there is often a pragmatic moral consensus about some important basic virtues and values. The fact that we disagree about the nature of morality doesn't mean there are not better and worse ways of thinking about it.
People sometimes claim that because religious accounts of morality are absolutist , religion, by its nature, cannot tolerate dissent. This has, of course, been a common religious position; it has also been a common secular position in the 20th century among Nazis and communists, for example. Some religious traditions have placed considerable emphasis on free conscience, however, and if some religions have claimed to know God's law with considerable certainty, others have emphasized humility.
Just as scientists can believe in objective truth and yet favor an open society in which we debate what that truth is, so religious folk can believe in moral truth and yet favor an open society in which we pursue it openly, with humility. Religious diversity. If there are shared moral values that cut across religions, we also need to remember that there are also differences among religions, and it won't do to say that they all agree about morality.
As we've just suggested, some traditions favor religious establishments and are intolerant of dissent, while others value freedom of conscience and the separation of church and state; some religions have required nonviolence, others have called for holy wars; some have emphasized love and mercy, and others justice and retribution; some have required chastity and poverty, yet others have sanctified marriage and wealth. Some religions have understood morality in terms of God's law, others in terms of love, or grace, or tradition, or liberating the oppressed. Religious conservatives have often grounded morality in Scripture, whereas religious liberals have often held that through continuing moral and religious experience, reason and reflection, we can progressively acquire deeper insight into morality and reform our traditions.
Some conservatives believe that people are so sinful that only the threat of hell or the experience of divine grace can move them. Liberals often have a somewhat more optimistic view of human nature in which we have at least a significant potential for doing good apart from supernatural intervention. Teachers must be aware of the complexity of their subject. We often think of morality in terms of personal virtues such as honesty, responsibility, and integrity—in part, perhaps, because such virtues are relatively uncontroversial, in part because they are congenial to an individualistic society.
But there are dangers in uncritically conceiving of morality as a matter primarily of personal virtue. Historically, morality has been intimately tied to visions of justice, social institutions, and ways of thinking about human suffering and flourishing.
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Indeed, given the ubiquity of suffering and injustice, it is hard to think of a more important task for schools than moral education broadly conceived. Of course, much that students study in history and literature classes does address the nature of suffering, injustice, and the human condition. One purpose of moral education is to help make children virtuous—honest, responsible, and compassionate. Another is to make mature students informed and reflective about important and controversial moral issues. Both purposes are embedded in a yet larger project—making sense of life.
On most accounts, morality isn't intellectually free-floating, a matter of personal choices and subjective values. Moralities are embedded in traditions, in conceptions of what it means to be human, in worldviews. How we ground and justify moral claims is tremendously important. It makes a huge difference if we think, for example, in terms of neoclassical economic theory and cost-benefit analyses, humanistic psychology and self-actualization, or moral theology.
Inspite of religious diversity and the great differences between liberals and conservatives within religious traditions, the vast majority of religious folk agree that reality has a God-given moral structure, and this distinguishes them from most secular folk. Unfortunately, they argue, this language of individualism is not nearly rich enough to allow us to make sense of those moral virtues and vices that are part of our civic and religious traditions.
If we haven't already become completely preoccupied with liberty and rights, self-interest and self-esteem, autonomy and individualism, we are in danger of this happening; we are losing our ability to speak meaningfully about virtue and duty, love and self-sacrifice, community and justice. The tendency is to forget the older languages, particularly when the everyday language of culture and the marketplace, schooling and scholarship are secular.
We agree. Too much education is relentlessly fixated on economic and technological development—both of which are important, of course. But, in the end , one of the things most people learn is that the greatest sources of meaning in life come not from wealth and technological wizardry but from altogether different realms of experience. We suggest that if students are to be adequately oriented in life, they should be educated somewhat less about its material dimensions and somewhat more about morality and those forms of community that bind us together with our fellow human beings, with the past, with our posterity, and, perhaps also with God.
It is important at the outset to remember that morality acquires its meaning and its force by virtue of its location within a worldview; there is a danger in abstracting moral principles and values from the contexts that make sense of them. Religious morality must be studied in religious context, paying attention to the theological and institutional webs of meaning that shape and sustain morality.
Phillip Wogaman and Douglas M. Strong, for a good collection of excerpts from major Christian writers arranged chronologically, and From Christ to the World: Introductory Readings in Christian Ethics , edited by Wayne G. Boulton, for a rich collection of biblical texts, articles, and documents, arranged topically, with an emphasis on recent texts. Contemporary Jewish Ethics and Morality: A Reader , edited by Elliot Dorff and Louis Newman, is a superb collection of articles covering a wide range of moral issues. Sexuality: A Reader , edited by Karen Lebacqz and David Sinacore-Guinn, includes an array of essays and official statements on sexuality from the major religious traditions.
Homosexuality and World Religions , edited by Arlene Swidler, includes essays on how homosexuality has been understood in the major religions. Siker, includes essays written from conservative and liberal positions, and the texts of a number of denominational statements on homosexuality. Abortion: A Reader , edited by Lloyd Steffens, is a superb collection of 45 essays and documents from a wide variety of religious perspectives.
Pls guide me in upbringing the children who throw tauntrams n does dangerous things like wh Sometimes a little spank over dangerous things can be accepted as in the case when the child insists on putting me What does Quran and hadees says about special children. I have been w I was wondering if I take my kids to a party where they play music with some kufr lyrics.
You must never do this again. Is bribing kids, like saying if u be good I will buy you this haram? I am a mother of 4 months old. My son is 10 and has recently changed with his attitude towards me and his attitude to memor Alhamdulillah Allah has blessed us with 3 children mashaAllah.
Which of the following is not a mineral? Which of the following was not a problem faced by India soon after Independence? Though India chose universal adult franchise after becoming independent, this was withheld in many other sovereign countries on the basis of certain criteria. Which of the following was not one of the criteria? Which one of the following statements explains the essence of 'mixed economy'? Which one among the following is not a feature of 'Lithosphere'? Which one of the following cannot be said about our 'planet 'Earth'?
Ocean water keeps moving continuously unlike the calm water of ponds and lakes. Which one of the following categories is not one of the movements of water? Which of the following is not an advantage of high tides? Ans: Directions: Based on your reading of the case study given below, answer the next two questions Q. Rashmi has the habit of asking the surnames of persons whom she comes across for the first time. She has to place the concerned person in the varna system of Indian society. This enquiry about caste identity is resented by many people though it is not expressed openly.
Things are more complicated. She is unable to figure out their caste status even if that person reveals the surname. She says that it is part of her primary socialization and she cannot help it. Primary socialization is 1 social networking at the primary level 2 learning from family and friends at an early age 3 learning from society during adolescence 4 memorising and imitating the teacher. The resentment is justified because the teacher's attitude 1 highlights the need for socialization 2 is purely based on personal biases 3 is not an indictment of the stereotypes it creates' 4 perpetuates social, political and economic inequalities.
Most people during the 19th century felt education will have a 'corrupting' influence on women. Which of the following brings out the contextual meaning of 'corrupting' in the above sentence?
Chapter 9. Moral Education
A teacher gives the following exercise to her students: Imagine you are a member of a nomadic community that shifts residence every 3 months. How would this change your life? As a result, low self-esteem governs the classroom transactions, with both teachers and students feeling uninterested in comprehending its contents.
From the initial stages of schooling, it is often suggested to students that the Natural Sciences are superior to the Social Sciences. What is the context in which the term 'non-utility subject' is used in the above extract? Which of the following best conveys the essence of the above extract? The significance of language in teaching-learning of Social Science cannot be over-emphasized. Which of the following statements does not convey the above idea?
Which of the following statements is incorrect about Social Science? Which of the following is not a source material for writing oral history? The following question is given under the heading 'Let's discuss' at the end of a chapter: 'Why do you think ordinary men and women did not generally keep records of what they did? There is nothing great or of significance to write about them 3 It is good to ignite a discussion and let students come out with their reasoning 4 Questions which do not have fixed answers should not be given, as they will confuse the students.
Notices and Circulars
Which type of questions will not develop critical thinking among students? While discussing gender roles in the classroom, you would assert that 1 there are different professions for men and women 2 boys need to attend school as they are the future earning members of the family 3 gender stereotypes in society need to be addressed meaningfully 4 household work should not be seen as productive. Which of the following questions would help build the critical thinking skills of students?
State whether true or false. Which of the following activities would you do to make the students understand the concept effectively? Diagnostic testing in Social Science will help a teacher understand 1 the part of the topic the student has not memorised 2 learning difficulties a student is facing in Social Science 3 how revision work has helped her students 4 how intelligent her students are. Choose the most inappropriate statement regarding teaching of Social Science in middle school.
Doing activities with children will be effective only if 1 the teacher does not know why she is doing it 2 the teacher conducts them to complete her 'Lesson Plan' 3 the teacher does them as a pretence to obey her principal's directions for activity-based learning 4 she believes that activity-based education will help the child in understanding the concepts. Which of the following should not be a part of the Social Science instructional process? Directions: Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow Q. People walk barefoot without a torch at night when they are most likely to step on a foraging venomous snake.
Attracted by the smell of rats, snakes enter houses and when one crawls over someone asleep on the floor and the person twitches or rolls over, it may bite in defence. The only first aid is to immobilise the bitten limb like you would a fracture, and get to a hospital for anti-venom serum without wasting time. Of the people who are. According to the author, people living in which parts are more prone to snake bites? Storing foodgrains in the house is one of the causes for snake bites because 1 foodgrains attract rats which in turn attract snakes 2 snakes enter houses in search of stored foodgrains 3 the smell of foodgrains brings both snakes and other animals into the house 4 stored foodgrains create convenient hiding places for snakes within houses.
This observation implies that 1 a snake is very good at defending itself 2 a snake may bite a human being in order to defend its prey 3 human beings are defenceless against snakes 4 a snake bites a human only when it is threatened. What, according to the author, is the reason for the high fatality rate due to snakebites in India?
In the instance of a snakebite, what should we do immediately? Pick out a word from the passage which means 'to go around in search of food'. Para 2 1 Foraging 2 Countryside 3 Venomous 4 barefoot. Pick out a word from the passage, that power to cause death'. Ans: 3 Directions: Read the poem given below and answer the questions that follow Q.
You shall not sneer at me. Pick up your hat and stethoscope, Go wash your mouth with laundry soap; I contemplate a joy exquisite I'm not paying you for your visit. I did not call you to be told My malady is a common cold. What is the emotion that the poet displays in the first stanza? Why and at whom does the poet show his emotion? The poet describes his eyes as 'two red redundant eyes' because. The general tone of the poem can be described as 1 satirical and harsh 2 ironical and mocking 3 whimsical and humorous 4 sad and tragic. Ans: 1 Directions: Answer the following questions by selecting the most appropriate option.
The Constructivist Approach to learning means 1 involving the students in a variety of activities to encourage them to learn new words and structures by accommodating them with those that they have already learnt through a process of discovery 2 teaching rules of grammar and consolidating through rigorous practice 3 helping learners acquire new vocabulary by studying literature intensively 4 teaching new words and structures using a variety of audio-visual aids followed by practice through drill. What is the skill among the ones given below that cannot be tested in a formal written examination?
Which of the following is suitable for making students responsible for their own learning? Ania, while teaching paragraph construction, should draw attention to 1 a large variety of ideas 2 originality of ideas 3 topic sentence, supporting details and connectors 4 a range of vocabulary. Formative Assessment is assessment 1 of learning 2 at learning 3 in learning 4 for learning. The term 'Comprehensive' in Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation means 1 scholastic development 2 co-scholastic development 3 academic skills 4 scholastic and co-scholastic development.
A teacher designs a test to find out the cause of the poor grades of her learners through alan 1 Diagnostic Test 2 Proficiency Test 3 Achievement Test 4 Aptitude Test. An inclusive class is that in which 1 differently abled learners study with normal students 2 students from different nationalities study together 3 students from different religions study together 4 both boys and girls study together.
When learners are engaged in a pair activity, taking on roles of a doctor and a patient, the activity is called 1 Real Activity 2 Declamation 3 Simulation 4 Exchanging notes.
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Essays or long writing tasks especially on a discursive issue should 1 help students develop their literary skills 2 help students with grammar 3 help them to improve their handwriting 4 help them discuss the different points of view and justify them with illustrative points. A teacher, Amrita, uses various tasks such as creating charts, graphs, drawing, gathering information and presenting them through pair or group work.
Using a word bank and brainstorming helps to build 1 Vocabulary 2 Ideas 3 Writing skills 4 Reading comprehension. Gender stereotypes and bias among learners can be discouraged by 1 enabling all learners to cook and sew irrespective of gender 2 using textbooks which do perpetuate such beliefs 3 creating an open and encouraging atmosphere in a mixed class 4 pressuring girls to learn cooking. I'm not being sarcastic; you are about to embark on an amazing voyage. It may be a bumpy ride, but on the journey your child will grow, change and blossom into the adult she will one day become.
If you are living with an older teenager, I won't try to sugar coat it : you will meet challenges. The raging hormones; the pressures of exams; the angst of relationships with friends and eventually lovers - modern teenagers are under so much pressure, it's no wonder they get moody! Gone is the baby who adored you without question; only shadows remain of the child who hung on your every word of wisdom. Your teenager is becoming a young adult, trying to find his way in the world.
He is now programmed to reject your values and kick against your authority. Some days, when arguments are raging, music is blaring, dishes pile up in the sink and your daughter misses her curfew again, you may feel that you just can't bear it any longer. It's only because we are so close to them that they look so big.
It's all about perspective. Your baby is metamorphosing into the adult he or she will be, and it's hard to watch. You want to save them from making your mistakes, and make their lives easier. News flash: you can't. What you can - and must - do is always be there to listen. There will be times when you are the last person she wants to talk to, but you must make sure the opportunity is always there. Be available. According to the author, living with a teenager is like an 'amazing voyage' because 1 during this voyage the parent will see the teenager blossoming into an adult 2 the voyage will be very bumpy and dangerous 3 both the teenager and the parent will get to see many amazing sights 4 the vogage will take them to different wonderful places on the earth.
Modern teenagers easily become annoyed or unhappy for no reason because of 1 the hormonal imbalance that is characteristic of this period of development 2 the failed relationships with friends and lovers 3 failing in examinations 4 the enormous stress they experience at this age. The word 'shadows' here refers to 1 faint traces of the adoring child 2 old memories of the teenager 3 old memories of the parents 4 the darker aspect of the growing teenager.
The author says that parents cannot prevent their teenage children from making mistakes. What is his advice to the parents? Pick out a word from the first paragraph of the above passage that means 'strong feelings of anxiety and unhappiness. Living with teens can be difficult because your child is in the process of great change. Ans: Directions: Read the poem given below and answer the questions Q. You are the keepers of the future; you hold the smallest of hands. Into your care you are trusted to nurture and care for the young, and for all of your everyday heroics, your talents and skills go unsung.
You wipe tears from the eyes of the injured.
You rock babies brand new in your arms.